A CH50 test is meant to measure the volume and activity of the major complement proteins. The Test comprises a collection of proteins that cooperate with the immune system. It recognizes and combats pathogens like bacteria and viruses.
There are nine main complement proteins. Their numbers range from C1 to C9. You can measure complement proteins separately or collectively. The two complement proteins that are most frequently tested are C3 and C4.
The CH50 Test, also known as CH100, quantifies the concentration and activity of each main complement protein. If the complement protein is not regular, it can mean a few things.
- Immune disorder or another serious medical condition.
- That the proteins are not functioning correctly with the immune system.
The CH50 Test evaluates the performance of the classical complement pathway interrupted by components C1 through C9. The doctor can measure each of the nine components to determine certain things. For example, it determines whether your body has acquired or inherited deficiencies if the results exceed the expected ranges.
What is the CH50 Test used to diagnose?
Most frequently, autoimmune disorders are detected or tracked using a complement blood test.
- Chronic disease like lupus affects joints, arteries, kidneys, the brain, and other body parts.
- Rheumatoid arthritis, which primarily affects hands and feet, is a condition that results in joint pain and swelling.
- Different bacteria, pathogens, or fungal infections may also be diagnosed with its aid.
Who needs to undergo a CH50 lab test?
If you are suspected of having an autoimmune condition like rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor might advise CH50 Test. The Test is helpful if you are receiving treatment for a condition that affects your immune system. In addition, the Test is recommended even if you have chronic inflammation or persistent infections.
What happens during a blood test for CH50?
A small needle is used by a medical professional to draw blood from a vein in the arm. A blood sample is collected in a test tube or vial after inserting the needle. The needle may sting slightly when it enters and exits your body. Usually, this only takes a few minutes.
When and why would you need a test for a complementary component?
If you have unexplained edema or inflammation, your physician will suggest this Test. If there are symptoms of an autoimmune disorder like lupus, the doctor might suggest a CH50 Test.
The doctor may recommend this Test for various other reasons. To determine whether any complement components are deficient, they can request specific complement components if (CH50) is abnormal. It can be related to the decline in complement levels after diagnosing an acute or chronic condition. Lupus-specific symptoms of an autoimmune disorder include:
- Oral sores
- Fatigue and exhaustion
- A butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and around the nose
- Responsiveness to light
- Extreme baldness
- Chest pain – during deep breaths
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Painful joints
Working of the CH50 Test
The Test is based on a person’s serum’s ability to lyse sheep erythrocytes. These have been coated with anti-sheep antibody levels (preferably rabbit IgG). Next, the subject’s serum is diluted to a certain concentration. The concentration at which 50% of sheep red blood cells lyse, and this concentration is noted as the CH50. The CH50 tests a person’s classical complement pathway, so functional C1-C9 factors are necessary.
What do the test results mean?
A hereditary deficiency may be the cause of your low complement levels. The body can experience an increase in recurrent microbial infections due to this genetic deficiency in complement proteins. These low complement levels also increase the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. If an underlying acute or chronic condition causes this deficiency, the results will typically return to normal. It happens once the underlying disease has been treated.
Low complement activity might result from:
- Autoimmune conditions like serum sickness
- Bacterial microbial infections that recur frequently
- Septicemia or shock
- Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis
- Cirrhosis and hepatitis
- Angioedema – acquired or hereditary
- Various kidney conditions like transplant rejection, glomerulonephritis, membranous nephritis, and lupus nephritis.
The complement component CH50 Test results are typically high when there is either acute or chronic inflammation. It might result from:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Lymphoma, tumor, and Hodgkin’s disease cancers can occur
- Inflammatory colitis
- Myocardial infarction acute
Do You Have to Be Prepared for the CH50 Test?
The CH50 Test requires no special preparation.
Does this Test pose any risks?
Despite the low to no risks associated with the Test, some individuals may experience the following:
- Dizziness or fainting
- A lot of bleeding
- Infection at the site of the break in the skin
If you experience any of the symptoms mentioned in this article, it is best to call the doctor immediately.